Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)


MID – SEMESTER TEST
ICT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
COMPUTER – ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL )

Background

Along with the development of technology and the development of a learning system in education, computer role is very important., especially in language learning system. Various systems and methods of language learning continues to be developed for the learning system becomes more interesting and more interactive. The teachers and other educators are required to always develop the capability themselves, performing a variety of new and more creative innovation in delivering learning to students, especially in language learning. One of the indispensable means to make this happen is the computer.

Advances in technology that continues to grow recently brought a major impact also on the development of learning systems, especially language learning. The use of computers has vastly expanded into various aspects of life, one of which is for education. Learning methods are constantly being developed is to provide convenience for students and teachers in implementing the learning process. One method of learning that utilizes technology advances through the use of computers is Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

The unique properties of the computer as a medium for education are its ability to interact with the student (Nelson, 1980), and its flexibility that enables the students to move in whatever direction interest them and whatever navigate through both texts and graphical information (Smith, 1988:33-40) , as well as video clips with the choice of live sound and narration on the topic they choose (Ahmad, 1985:2-3). Moreover, the computer can utilized to enhance language learning, and can also be use to generate example to illustrate certain operation, or to stimulate conversation (Kenning, 1984). This integrated combination of future can help students with clear explanations and descriptions, as well as illustrations.

WHAT IS CALL ?

CALL means CAL which is implemented to language. This is mean the utilization of the computer is primarily directed to make provisions to language learning tutorial program.

With CALL as tutorial program, student can learn language in a different way by using the computer, and the learning process can be more interesting and more interactive. The student not only sitting and listening to the teacher, but students can do something more challenging and increase their ability in language, because with CALL program their use computer that encourage them in learning a language.

This program gives students a lot more opportunity to learn language even if students can not attend a class because of illness and some other problems they might have to deal with during the learning process. The students can try to do some interactive games, they can hear the sound, then try to speak the words with the right pronunciation and students also able to know their own score which can give them more spirit to learn and learn more about language.
CALL is a program derived from CAL (Computer-Assisted Learning) which is implemented to language, but the use of computer here is mainly aimed at providing a language learning tutorial program (Hartoyo 2006, 21). In addition, Egbert (2005, 4) says that CALL means students learn language in any context with, through, and around computer technologies. From both definitions, the main focus of CALL is on the application of computers in language learning.
Ruhlman (1995) who designed a computer-based tutorial program for learning a language view that :
With computer-assisted learning program students learn actively, respond to question, complete interactive task, and enter a personal dialogue with their electronic tutor. Student can also assess themselves without the fear of losing face. In contrast to human behavior, tutorial feedback in well-designed in well designed computer assisted learning program remains constantly supportive and patient, computer-assisted learning tutorial can encourage self-driven inquiry by the students (Ruhlmann,1995:46-47).

THE STRENGTHS OF CALL

1. The program can stimulate interaction, especially interaction between the computer and the user, includes the effectiveness of the instruction and feedback provided in the program.
2. This program is very flexible, very easy, interesting and easy to navigate within the program.
3. It is very easy to learn and understand the materials in CALL program. The content is appropriate and suitable with the students ‘ need.
4. CALL is an effective program in language learning. This program assist language learners to improve their mastery of grammar.
5. The performance for the presentation, lay out on the screen, the color, and the illustration that used in this program are very attractive.
6. CALL program also provided an individual record for the student who want to know the result of their effort. And another facility that provided is a record that documents a list of the students who have used the program, the frequency of using the program, the results of the students’ work (in doing the exercises), the time they spent using the program, and self-rating that provides a comments for each student.
7. This program gives an immediate feedback which is very important in language learning.

Such feedback is very important in language learning. A study conducted by Whyte, et.al, (1995) shows that feedback during student practice is consider a fundamental component of well design computer assisted instruction. The result of their study indicates that feedback has significant impact on students’ motivation, leading to increased interest in learning. Roper (1977) points out that the provision of immediate feedback is one of the strengths of the computer-assisted language instruction. He further explains that feedback providing the correct answer was found to be superior to feedback simply saying whether the student’s answer was correct or wrong. Gilman (1969), Cohn (1985) and Nagat, et.al, (1995) present a similar view.

THE ADVANTAGES OF CALL

CALL can provide encouragement to students to improve reading habits which will enhance their learning ability, especially in the field of language. With a lot of reading will enrich students, and students will be something of course curiosity will grow and continue growing. This course will provide a positive impact on
students’ learning progress, which will become more active, productive, critical and more daring to try and continue to practice their skills in the field of language without fear of making mistakes.

CALL describe the freedom to students to choose a learning system that they want, and how long they want to learn what makes students be more independent and no longer passive during the learning process. CALL is also a learning program that is very easy with the system straightforward and very interesting program. With a very interesting learning system will improve students’ learning spirit.

Structures and systems that appear in the CALL program is extraordinary, very clear and very helpful students in undergoing the process of learning. It is also certainly will facilitate teachers or other educators in delivering learning materials to students. Because with this CALL programs keep students can apply their learning to learn well even without the presence of teachers in the classroom. Students can interact with a computer that is used during the learning process through the CALL program.

CALL is a language learning program is very good which can help students, teachers and other teachers in learning the language by using modern technology. With a CALL program, technological advances are increasingly sophisticated and modern can be fully utilized in supporting the language learning process. Computer, Internet, CD Rom are some examples of modern technological devices that can be used in the program.
Learning the language is not just Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, but students need to look for something more spacious from outside the classroom and linking the classroom with the outside world is the real world. And CALL program allows students and teachers and other faculty members to do so because the technology uses a sophisticated and modern as the Internet.

Since the CALL tutorial package can also be used in pairs, it spurs the user (student) to be able to collaborate very usefully in problem solving which in itself is considered to be a good skill acquire, as it can be implemented in a wide range of different contexts. In addition to this statement, Ross (1992) gives the same idea.

THE DISADVANTAGES OF CALL
Need a very big cost to run the CALL program because not all students or teachers can use the computer properly. Therefore, teachers must undergo training or courses on computer operation, so that CALL programs can be performed well. This would be one of the main obstacles to running the program CALL.
Enormous cost of course also very necessary to provide all the technology tools that will be used in this CALL program. Not all schools, educational institutions and individual students are able to have all the facilities necessary to be able to run the program this CALL.
Use of the Internet in the CALL program allows students to access anything from the outside world that might bring bad influence to the development of students.
With a CALL program, allowing students to learn without the presence of teachers
in class. If this often happens the student will lose a lot of time to meet directly with the teacher. This will disturb the inner relationship with the student teacher in psychology is required in the learning process.

In general, reading a text, especially the long ones, on the screen is slower more difficult and tiring. Gould and Grischowsky (1984) have shown that people read 20 -30 % slower from low resolution screen. It may sometimes, account for the eye irritation and pain. Therefore those who are concerned with the design and programming CAL should take into account the use of high resolution screens, and should refer to the Display Screen Equipment (DSE) regulation (e.g. in the U.K : The Health and Safety (DSE) Regulation 1992).

REFERENCES
Ahmad, K., G. Corbett, M. Rogers, and R. Sussex. (1985). Computer Language
Learning and Teaching. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.
Cohn, V.B. ( 1985). A. Reexamination of Feedback in Computer Based Intruction: Implication for Instructional Design. Educational Technology, 25,33,37.
Gilman, D.A.. (1969). Comparison of Several Feedback Methods for Correcting Error by Computer-Assisted Instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(5). 503-508.
Hartoyo, M.A.,Ph.D, Individual Differences In Computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Kenning, M.J. and M.M. Kenning. (1984). An Introduction to Compute Assisted Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nagata, N. and Swisher, M.V. (1995). A Study of Counsciousness- Raising by Computer: The Effect of Metalinguistic Feedback on Second Language Learning. A Foreign Language Annal, 28 (3), 337-47
Nelson, T. (1980). ‘Replacing the Printed World; A Complete Literary System’. IFIP Congress Proceeding. October 1980.
Roper, W.J. (1977). Feedback in Computer Assisted Instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 14(1), 43-49
Ross Margaret. (1992). ‘The CHILL factor (or computer hindered language learning)’. AW; 65-66.
Ruhlmann, F. (1995). Towards replacement of the teaching process with CAL and Its implication for the design of a multimedia CAL tutorial. Computer Asisted Language Learning, 8(1), 45-61.
Smith,T.E. (1988). ‘Hypertext – Linking to the Future’. ONLINE, 12,33-40
Smith-Kreuzen, M.(1988) Computer in Language Teaching. EMI journal 25(3),169.
Whyte, M.M, Dolores M.K, Nielsen, M.C., Elder, G.D.,and Hawley, T. (1995). Cognitive Style and Feedback in Computer-Assisted Instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12(2), 195-203.

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